Sunday, October 31, 2010

History of the Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919

"Nonpharmaceutical Interventions Implemented by US Cities"


"The Great Pandemic"

"The Mother of All Pandemics"

"The Deadly Virus" - Primary Documents

More Overview

Primary and Secondary Documents

"The US Military and the Influenza Pandemic"

History of Francisco "Pancho" Villa



More Overview

"The Mexican Revolution: An Overview"

History of Venustiano Carranza.

Letters from Carranza


History of Victoriano Huerta

"All the Brains I Can Borrow"


NY Times Article

History of "Moral Diplomacy"

"Wilson and Moral Diplomacy"

Wilson's 2nd Inaugural Address and Fourteen Points


More Overview

History of the Twenty-One Demands

"The 21 Demands: Japan Versus China" (1921)


"China-Japan: Again, Demands"

History of the Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)

The Clayton Antitrust Act


More Overview

Even More Overview

History of the Federal Trade Commission Act (1914)

"The Trust Problem" (1917)

The Federal Trade Commission Act


More Overview (brochure)

Wednesday, October 27, 2010

Jacksonville City Council action

Issue: Fire union agreement

What it means: Firefighters have already signed off on this new agreement, which includes 2 percent pay cuts and employee insurance contributions but guarantees no layoffs for two years. Now, the city council has ratified the agreement.

Bill No. 2010-824

Action: Passed, 15-0.

Jacksonville councilman retreats on moving Halloween to Saturday

Jacksonville City Councilman Don Redman said he was only attempting to respond to constituents’ concerns when he filed a bill last week that, if approved, would have urged Duval County residents to celebrate Halloween on Saturday instead of Sunday.

Instead, he asked council President Jack Webb to allow him to withdraw that request, citing the conflict with Saturday’s Georgia-Florida football game among his reasons.

The vote in Tuesday’s council meeting to withdraw was unanimous.

Redman’s last-minute request, which would have been nonbinding, was widely panned as being short-sighted and an unnecessary distraction from more serious council business.

Webb was one of the first to cite the Georgia-Florida conflict as a potential roadblock to Redman’s bill. Initially, Redman had asked that the bill be considered as an emergency item Tuesday.

City of Jacksonville reduces phone expenses by $170K

Jacksonville City Hall's cell phone bill was reduced about $170,000 by cancelling unused phones, prohibiting downloads and making sure users are on appropriate plans.

The changes, including canceling 139 phones that weren't being used and appointing a cell phone coordinator in each department, came in response to a city inspector general report issued a year ago.

That report found "little oversight over cellular expenditures," with used phones still incurring monthly charges and some employees racking up excessive text messaging fees and charges for roaming and calls to directory assistance.

Some users were downloading ringtones, games and videos while others were texting despite not being on a texting plan.

The single largest chunk of the savings - $50,000 - came from canceling unused phones. Such "zombie" phones came from workers leaving the city's employ but their phones remaining active because no one was told to shut them off.

Files: Iraqi deaths higher than U.S. count

The accounts of civilian deaths among nearly 400,000 purported Iraq war logs released Friday by the WikiLeaks website include deaths unknown or unreported before now — as many as 15,000 by the count of one independent research group.

The field reports from U.S. forces and intelligence officers also indicate U.S. forces often failed to follow up on credible evidence that Iraqi forces mistreated, tortured and killed their captives as they battled a violent insurgency.

Iraq Body Count, a private British-based group that has tracked the number of Iraqi civilians killed since the war began, said it had analyzed the information and found 15,000 previously unreported deaths, which would raise its total from as many as 107,369 civilians to more than 122,000 civilians.

It said most of the newly disclosed deaths included targeted assassinations, drive-by shootings, torture, executions and checkpoint killings.

The Iraqi government has issued a tally claiming at least 85,694 deaths of civilians and security officials were killed between January 2004 and Oct. 31, 2008.

Women more generous, more likely to donate, study says

Women are more generous than men when it comes to charitable donations, a study released today suggests.

In all income groups, women are more likely to give, and in four of five groups, they give more than men do — sometimes twice as much, according to the study by the Women's Philanthropy Institute at Indiana University's Center on Philanthropy.

In the study's middle range of income, $43,500 to $67,532, the average donation was $728 from women, $373 from men.

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

New Addition to the Family - Lauryn!

My daughter Lauryn was born on Thursday, October 14, 2010. We are extremely happy and grateful.

I will not be able to finish anymore election guides due to my lack of free time. I will, however, continue to update news articles on a weekly basis. Lastly, I will try my hardest to continue posting "history" posts (I will probably average about 6 a week).


Drug companies pay 17,000 U.S. doctors, report finds

More than 17,000 doctors and other healthcare providers have taken money from seven major drug companies to talk to other doctors about their products, a joint investigation by news organizations and non-profit groups found.

More than 380 of the doctors, nurses, pharmacists and other professionals took in more than $100,000 in 2009 and 2010, according to the investigation released on Tuesday. The report said far more doctors are likely to have taken such payments, but it documented these based on information from seven drugmakers.

The payments are not illegal and usually not even considered improper. But the investigation by journalism group ProPublica, Consumer Reports magazine, NPR radio and several publications showed doctors were sometimes urged to recommend "off-label" prescriptions of drugs, meaning using them for conditions they are not approved for.

t said 40 others had been warned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for research misconduct, had lost hospital privileges or were convicted of crimes.

U.S. to pay $760 million for mistreating Indian farmers

The U.S. government will spend up to $760 million to compensate American Indian farmers who were unfairly denied loans by the Agriculture Department, the Obama administration announced on Tuesday.

"With today's agreement, we take an important step forward in remedying USDA's unfortunate civil rights history," President Barack Obama said in a statement.

Obama urged Congress to appropriate funds promised months ago in two other cases. In February, the government announced a $1.25 billion settlement for USDA discrimination against black farmers. A December 2009 settlement calls for $3.4 billion to resolve an Indian trust cast.

Compensation in the so-called Keepseagle case of USDA discrimination against American Indian farmers from 1981-99 would be paid from a federal judgment fund and not require congressional action, said officials. Some $680 million will be available to pay discrimination claims approved by an impartial adjudicator and USDA will provide up to $80 million in forgiveness of farm-loan debts.

Payments of up to $50,000 apiece will be considered for people who show substantial evidence of discrimination. Those with stronger evidence of economic losses can get up to $250,000.

Filed in 1999, the Keepseagle case accused USDA of denying loans to thousands of American Indians while approving similar loans for white farmers and ranchers. West said the settlement needs approval by the federal judge handling the case, brought by George and Marilyn Keepseagle, of North Dakota.

Top 400 Charities See Billions Less in Donations

A new ranking of the nation's 400 biggest charities shows donations dropped by 11 percent overall last year as the Great Recession ended - the worst decline in 20 years since the Chronicle of Philanthropy began keeping a tally.

The Philanthropy 400 report to be released Monday shows such familiar names as the United Way and the Salvation Army, both based near Washington, continue to dominate the ranking, despite the 2009 declines. The survey accounts for $68.6 billion in charitable contributions.

U.S. Hispanics outliving whites, blacks

On average, Hispanics outlive whites by 2.5 years and blacks by 7.7 years, according to the report. Their life expectancy at birth in 2006 was 80.6 years, compared with 78.1 for whites, 72.9 for blacks and 77.7 years for the total population. Asians are not included in the data.

Jacksonville City Council action

A look at some of the action taken by the Jacksonville City Council on Tuesday night:

Issue: Ethics code

What it means: The council considered an amendment to the city charter to add an ethics code and ethics policy. Among the changes, the city's ethics officer would report directly to the Ethics Commission, and all the city's constitutional officers would be subject to the Ethics Code. Bill No. 2010-616

Action: Re-referred back to committee.

Issue: Jacksonville Symphony Association

What it means: The Jacksonville Symphony would be allowed to lease the Jacoby Hall at the Times-Union Center for the Performing Arts through 2013. This revised lease provides for a base rental rate of $95,000 for 2010-11, with increases in subsequent years tied to the inflation rate. Bill No. 2010-719

Action: Approved, 15-0.

Issue: USS Charles F. Adams museum

What it means: This legislation expresses the council's formal support of efforts by the Jacksonville Historic Naval Ship Association to bring the retired Navy vessel to the city. The USS Charles F. Adams would be come a floating museum on the Southbank near the Acosta Bridge. Bill No. 2010-675

Action: Approved, 15-0.

City has one of U.S. great neighborhoods

The Riverside/Avondale area of Jacksonville has been named on the American Planning Association’s 2010 Great Places in America as one of the organization’s 10 “Great Neighborhoods.”

Referring to the adjoining areas on the banks of the St. John’s River west of Downtown as “Jacksonville’s hidden gem,” the planning association notes that the neighborhoods comprise two historic districts that spread over eight miles and are on the National Register of Historic Places.

Denials up amid large health insurers: lawmakers

In a report released on Tuesday, the House Energy and Commerce Committee's top Democrats said the number of people refused health insurance plans by big insurers Aetna Inc, Humana Inc, UnitedHealth Group Inc and WellPoint Inc due to pre-existing conditions rose 49 percent in the last three years.

The denials affected tens of thousands of individuals seeking to buy their own insurance. In 2009, 257,100 could not get a plan compared with 172,400 in 2007, the committee said.

Overall, the insurers refused to sell plans to more than 651,000 individuals -- or one out of every seven applicants -- because of their medical history, Committee Chairman Henry Waxman and fellow Democrat Representative Bart Stupak said.

U.S. intelligence agencies 'wasted' billions

U.S. intelligence agencies have wasted many billions of dollars by mismanaging secret, high-technology programs, the deputy chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence says.

"The American public would be outraged if they knew," Sen. Christopher S. Bond, Missouri Republican, told The Washington Times. "Billions and billions of taxpayer dollars have been wasted."

Mr. Bond said he was unable to provide details or exact figures because the programs are classified. "I wish I could, but I can't," he said, adding that "many billions of dollars" were wasted on "just one program" that had been canceled recently.

In 2009, retired Navy Adm. Dennis C. Blair, then-director of national intelligence, revealed for the first time that U.S. spending on military and civilian intelligence programs totaled about $75 billion.

Taxpayers Paid for Ringtones, Games on Jacksonville Cellphones

Thehas 1,350 cell phones, and that does not include all of JSO's cell phones, which you also pay for.

The cell phone bill at City Hall is on average $80,000 a month. A 2009 cell phone audit found the city dropped its connection on a number of levels.

"We found out employees weren't sure what their plans were. What was included, excluded," said city Inspector General Pam Markham, who spent months reviewing bills.

The audit also found 86 cell phones that were paid for but not used, some for seven months, at a cost of $15,100.

JTA gets multi-million grant from the federal government

The Jacksonville Transportation Authority has won a $2.4 million grant to repair and refurbish downtown bus hub structures, maintain existing drainage ponds and repair the roof at the Rosa Parks Transit Station.

This money, which is coming from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration, will be spent in early 2011, JTA officials said.

The grant is part of the fiscal year 2010 State of Good Repair program.

JTA has also been informed by the federal government that it spent all the federal stimulus money it was awarded properly, without any deficiencies.

Obama touts $50 billion transportation proposal

President Obama on Monday lobbied for Republican support from Capitol Hill for a burst of spending on transportation projects, calling his proposal a jobs creator for the middle class and an overdue investment in the country's foundation.

"There's no reason why we can't do this," Mr. Obama said in a brief Rose Garden event. "There's no reason why the world's best infrastructure should lie beyond our borders. This is America. We've always had the best infrastructure. ... All we need is the political will."

Mr. Obama is proposing a $50 billion plan as an initial step toward a six-year program of transportation programs. It calls for building, fixing or maintaining thousands of miles of roads, rail lines and airport runways, along with installing a new air navigation system to reduce travel delays, and other projects.

Duval School Attendance Critical This Week

School Superintendent Ed Pratt-Dannals is reaching out to parents reminding them this week, October 11-15, is critical for students to be in school.

Pratt-Dannals, in a telephone message sent to parents, stressed that this week is when the state does a student count that determines state funding.

The district says that students must be in class at least one day this week to be counted for funding purposes. Another student count is also done in February.

Sunday, October 10, 2010

Key Vote: Education Jobs and Medicaid Assistance Act

Education Jobs and Medicaid Assistance Act
- Vote Passed (247-161, 25 Not Voting)

In August, the House passed this bill to provide $16.1 billion to extend increased Medicaid assistance to states and $10 billion in funding for states to create or retain teachers' jobs.

Rep. Ander Crenshaw voted NO

Key Vote: Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
- Vote Passed (237-192, 4 Not Voting)

The House passed the final version of the financial regulation reform legislation in June.

Rep. Ander Crenshaw voted NO

Key Vote: Repeal Don't Ask Don't Tell

Patrick Murphy of Pennsylvania Amendment; National Defense Authorization Act, FY2011
- Vote Agreed to (234-194, 10 Not Voting)

During the defense authorization bill debate in May, the House adopted this amendment that would repeal the "don’t ask, don’t tell" law that prohibits openly gay men and women from serving in the military.

Rep. Ander Crenshaw voted NO

Key Vote: Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
- Vote Passed (219-212)

In March, the House passed this bill, which would overhaul the nation's health insurance system and require most individuals to buy health insurance by 2014.

Rep. Ander Crenshaw voted NO

Key Vote: 2011 Defense Authorization, Cloture

2011 Defense Authorization, Cloture
- Vote Rejected (56-43, 1 Not Voting)

The Senate rejected this attempt to end debate on the 2011 Defense spending bill, which would authorize $725.7 billion in discretionary funding for defense programs. The bill would have also repealed a 1993 law that codified the "don’t ask, don’t tell" policy banning military service by openly gay men and women.

Sen. Bill Nelson voted YES
Sen. George LeMieux voted NO

Key Vote: Nomination of Elena Kagan to the Supreme Court

Nomination of Elena Kagan to the Supreme Court
- Vote Confirmed (63-37)

The Senate confirmed Elena Kagan to be an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in August. The former dean of Harvard Law School, Kagan had served as Obama’s solicitor general since March of 2009 and was the first woman to hold the position. She replaced Justice John Paul Stevens, who had been appointed by President Gerald Ford in 1975.

Sen. Bill Nelson voted YES
Sen. George LeMieux voted NO

Key Vote: Education Jobs and Medicaid Assistance Act

Education Jobs and Medicaid Assistance Act
- Vote Agreed to (61-39)

The Senate passed this bill in August to provide $16.1 billion to extend increased Medicaid assistance to states and $10 billion in funding for states to create or retain teachers' jobs. The cost of the programs will be offset by changing foreign tax provisions, ending increased food stamp benefits beginning in April 2014 and rescinding previously enacted spending.

Sen. Bill Nelson voted YES
Sen. George LeMieux voted NO

Key Vote: Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
- Vote Agreed to (60-39)

The Senate passed the final version of the financial regulation reform legislation in July. The bill creates new regulatory procedures to assess risks posed by large financial institutions and facilitate the orderly dissolution of failing firms that pose a threat to the economy. It will also create a new federal agency to oversee consumer financial products, bring the derivatives market under significant federal regulation and give shareholders and regulators greater say on executive pay.

Sen. Bill Nelson voted YES
Sen. George LeMieux voted NO

Key Vote: Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Reconciliation

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Reconciliation
- Vote Passed (56-43, 1 Not Voting)

The Senate passed the final version of a bill to overhaul the nation’s health care system in March using a procedure known as reconciliation, which allows the Senate to bypass a filibuster with a simple majority. The bill mandates that individuals buy health insurance with exceptions for certain religious groups and those who cannot afford coverage. Those who do not buy insurance will be subject to a tax. Under the bill, beginning in 2014 insurance companies cannot deny coverage based on pre-existing medical conditions, and cannot drop coverage of people who become ill. In addition, a section of the bill makes the federal government the sole originator of student loans.

Sen. Bill Nelson voted YES
Sen. George LeMieux voted NO

Key Vote: Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011

Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011
- Vote Passed (228-194, 10 Not Voting)

The House gave final approval to this measure funding government operations through December 3, 2010. The 2011 fiscal year began on October 1, 2010 with none of the annual spending bills completed. The president signed it into law on September 30.

Rep. Ander Crenshaw voted NO

Key Vote: NASA Authorization Act of 2010

NASA Authorization Act of 2010
- Vote Passed (304-118, 10 Not Voting)

The House gave final approval to this bill authorizing $58.4 billion in NASA spending over the next three fiscal years. The president is expected to sign the bill which largely follows the administration’s plan for NASA.

Rep. Ander Crenshaw voted YES

Key Vote: Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011

Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011
- Vote Passed (69-30, 1 Not Voting)

The Senate passed this measure funding government operations through December 3, 2010. The 2011 fiscal year began on October 1, 2010 with none of the annual spending bills completed. The House passed the measure a short time later and President Obama signed it into law on September 30.

Sen. Bill Nelson voted YES
Sen. George LeMieux voted NO

Florida gets almost $25 million in federal grants

The state of Florida is getting nearly $25 million in federal grants for substance abuse and addiction treatment.

Health News Florida reported Friday that four community health centers in Florida will share $14.5 million for expansion, and five counties will share nearly $9.7 million for addiction treatment.

$20M in house buying help available in Jax

Jacksonville Housing Finance Authority has issued an additional $20 million in single family mortgage revenue bonds, according to a news release.

Proceeds from the bonds will provide low interest mortgage financing and assistance with down payment or closing costs to families in need.

The program has lowered the interest rate for a 30-year, fixed-rate mortgage to 3.99 percent and extended the program until Feb. 1, 2011.

To qualify, an individual or family must meet specific income guidelines and standard credit underwriting requirements. The home must be a primary residence and located within Duval County. Qualified participants include first-time homebuyers, honorably discharged veterans or persons refinancing a predatory loan product.

The first-time homebuyer requirement will be waived for borrowers refinancing qualified subprime loans, which are adjustable rate, single-family residential mortgage loans that closed between Jan. 1, 2002, and Dec. 31, 2007, and that the HFA determines would be reasonably likely to cause financial hardship to the borrower if not refinanced. The market value of a residence that is refinanced cannot exceed $250,000 at the time of the financing.

Guest column: Third party audit is needed to shine light on city budget

Just read the whole column by City Council member Bill Bishop.

Deportations of illegals falls short of goal

Overall, deportations totaled about 392,000, or a less than 1 percent increase over 2009, leaving U.S. Customs and Immigration Enforcement short of of the goal it set for itself of 400,000 deportations.

Still, the administration said its new focus on immigrants with criminal records is paying off, with about half of those deported in 2010 being convicted criminals. In 2009, when about 390,000 immigrants were deported, only about a third of them had criminal records.

Summary of Amendments on Florida Ballots

Amendment 1, Repeal of Public Campaign Finance Requirement

  • Sponsor: Florida Legislature
  • Summary: Proposing the repeal of the provision in the state constitution that requires public financing of campaigns of candidates for elective statewide office who agree to campaign spending limits.

Amendment 2, Homestead ad Valorem Tax Credit for Deployed Military Personnel

  • Sponsor: Florida Legislature
  • Summary: Proposing to add to the constitution an additional homestead exemption for military members who were deployed during the previous year.

Amendment 4, Referenda Required for Adoption and Amendment of Local Government Comprehensive Land Use Plans

  • Sponsor: Florida Hometown Democracy, Inc. PAC
  • Summary: Proposes to add to the constitution a requirement that any changes to a local government's land use plan be approved by the voters. Currently, changes are approved by the local government.

Amendment 5, Standards for Legislature to Follow in Legislative Redistricting

  • Sponsor:
  • Summary: Unless otherwise required, districts must be compact, as equal in population as feasible, and where feasible must make use of existing city, county and geographical boundaries. The proposal aims to eliminate any district preferences for or against a political party or incumbent.

Amendment 6, Standards for Legislature to Follow in Congressional Redistricting

  • Sponsor:
  • Summary: It's the same as Amendment 5, but aimed at congressional representation rather than state legislator representation.

Amendment 8, Revision of the Class Size Requirements for Florida Public Schools

  • Sponsor: Florida Legislature
  • Summary: The proposal increases the maximum number of students allowed in each public classroom.

Complete amendment information is available on the state Division of Elections website.

Few U.S. companies seek to export

Only about 1 percent, or roughly 280,000, of American companies export, and that share isn’t growing, although existing exporters are increasing their foreign market share, a trade analyst told a Jacksonville symposium Tuesday morning.

Jorge Arce, director of the U.S. Commercial Service’s Jacksonville office, said about 97 percent of U.S. exporters are small companies, and most of those have 15 or less employees. Queries to his office from companies looking to get into exporting have been nearly nonexistent during the recession.

Walk this way: U.S. out of step with weight loss

Researchers compared 1,136 U.S. adults wearing pedometers with adults involved in similar studies in Australia, Japan and Switzerland. The mean number of steps Americans take in a day is 5,117, compared with 9,695 for Australians, the walking leaders among the four countries. The USA's 34% adult obesity rate is more than double Australia's 16%.

On Politics: Dissenting opinions not always welcome

At last week’s raucous Jacksonville City Council meeting, roughly 80 people took to the podium to address the council, with the overwhelming majority opposing a tax hike.

But only one was quizzed on her occupation.

Elexia Coleman-Moss, a young entrepreneur who serves as chair of JCCI Forward, was called back to the podium by Councilman Clay Yarborough after she spoke in favor of preserving social services.

Coleman-Moss responded with an explanation of her vocation and was then asked if she received city money.

She doesn’t. But the same can’t be said for some speakers who opposed the hike.

Astoundingly, they didn’t face the same query.

Friday, October 8, 2010

Election Guide: Governor and Lieutenant Governor (Florida)

This guide is for Governor and Lieutenant Governor (Florida)

The seven candidates and their platforms:

1) Rick Scott (Republican).
  • Institute "Accountability Budgeting."
  • Opposed to immigration amnesty.
  • Committed to "conserving Florida's natural resources" and preserving the Everglades."
  • He started Columbia Hospital in 1987 which is now "the 12th largest employer in the world."
  • Co-founder of Florida based Solantic Health.
  • Opposes Obama's "government-run public option."
  • Supports a state constitutional amendment that prohibits the federal government from imposing Obama's mandate.
  • NRA member and supporter of the 2d Amendment.
  • "Rick will create jobs by keeping taxes low and limiting job killing regulations."
  • In the 1990s, the FBI launched an investigation of the Columbia Hospital which "led to the company pleading guilty to criminal charges of overbilling the government." They "paid a record $1.7 billion in fines"
Sun-Sentinel article. article.

2) Alex Sink (Democrat).
  • "26 successful years in business."
  • Currently Florida's Chief Financial Officer.
  • Put a stop to "Project Aspire, an $89 million, over-budget and under-performing state accounting program she inherited upon taking office"
  • Launched initiatives like the Safeguard Our Senior Task Force to "protect older Floridians from financial fraud" and Florida Housing Help, a program that "provides assistance to Floridians facing mortgage foreclosure."
  • She is the chair of Take Stock in Children.
  • She was president of Florida's largest bank, in charge of over "$40 billion in customer deposits while supervising more than 9,000 employees in 800 branches."
  • "Stabilize and expand small business."
  • Creation of a Florida job-creation tax credit.
  • "Increase efforts to market Florida as a retirement destination."
  • Use her role to promote successful companies in Florida to the world.
  • Expand R&D tax credits.
  • "Leverage up to $2 billion for high-tech investment" from the Florida Retirement System Trust Fund.
  • Create Energy Finance Districts which would "provide residential, commercial, and industrial loans to retrofit properties with energy-efficient systems."
  • Create a small business ombudsman within the Governor's Office.
  • Will "require that state regulatory agencies work together to simplify regulations."
  • Create a "one-stop" web portal for start-up businesses.
  • Require all top state agency officials to sign performance contracts with benchmarks.
  • Create a "non-partisan watchdog make state government more efficient."
  • Invest in high-quality pre-kindergarten education programs.
  • Invest in intervention programs to reduce crime.
  • Eliminate numerous exemptions from competitive bidding requirements.
  • Consolidate call centers, the state fleet management and "unneeded state property."
  • Reduce state cell phone usage to save "$6 million" as well as the use office supplies to save an additional $14 million.
  • Go after more federal transportation funding.
  • Hire a contractor to help the state draw down more federal funds.
  • "Merit pay for teachers and charter schools need to be part" of educational reform.
  • Require full disclosure of state party credit card spending.
  • Ban gifts from Vendors to State agency employees.
  • Promote Florida's new Property Assessed Clean Energy program, "which allows local governments to offer low-interest loans to property owners for making energy-efficient improvement to their homes."
  • Impose "stiff state fines" on private companies that knowingly hire undocumented workers.
  • Veto any legislation that diverts money from the state's highway trust fund to other projects.
  • Offer tax incentives for businesses to use rail.
Sink Unveils Alternative Energy Plan

3) Peter Allen (Independent).
  • Owner of two small businesses.
  • "Graduated from Brandon High night school with a GED in 2000, at the age of fifty."
  • Born on "all Saints day."
  • "Eliminate the special tax privileges that riddle Florida's tax codes, close all loopholes. except those that provide wellcare to our Children and the Elderly."
  • "Require that The Florida State Legislature provide full funding for all mandates they force on lower levels of government."
  • "Include sunset clauses in legislation along with a statement of the law's original intent."
  • "Restrict taxing authority to elected boards."
  • "Require all student loan organizations to fully explain the cost for student loans."
  • Promotes increasing Charter Schools.
  • "Make the criminals pay for the criminal justice system."
  • Privatize the states' prison system.
  • Decriminalize small amounts of Marijuana.
  • "Enact a Health Care Bill of Rights to provide basic health care to all of Florida's legal residents, and to protect the rights of citizens to freely exercise self interest in choosing health care."
  • Charge illegal immigrants for health care and education.
  • "Eliminate corporate welfare through public funding of professional sports stadiums and other commercial enterprises."
  • "Set term limits for all elected officials."
  • "Require all current office holder's to step down when running for another office, ending the Campaigning on the tax payer dollar."

4) Michael E. Arth (NPA).
  • Created "Villages for the Homeless" an organization that fights to end homelessness with less money.
  • Served as a public policy analyst for over 15 years.
  • Redesigned Downtown DeLand's Historic Garden District.
  • Supports a "woman's right to choose."
  • "We must end the expensive and self-destructive war on drugs and treat abuse as the health issue it is."
  • The death penalty is unconstitutional.
  • Supports "regulated, limited public campaign financing with little or no private campaign financing allowed; direct voting; proportional representation; [and] instant runoff voting."
  • "We should run our state like any prudent investor – put money into reserve in fat years and use those reserves in the lean years. That way, we can still follow Keynesian economics without going into debt."
  • Encourage growth of Charter Schools.
  • Have smaller class sizes.
  • Use "personalized, interactive, online teaching...with small neighborhood schools."
  • "We should not drill for oil off the coast."
  • Charge a 25 cent environmental tax on plastic garbage bags and plastic water bottles.
  • "Funding should not be connected with" the FCAT.
  • Supports "equal rights, including marriage, for gays."
  • "Extend Brady Background checks to all gun sales."
  • Supports a "single-payer" health system but "we should leave off the extraordinary end of life care and the other things that cost a lot but do not improve our quality of life."
  • "The government should stay out of the bedroom of consenting adults, but sex workers should have health and business–related regulations, and pay taxes, like the rest of us."
  • "Divert the non–violent mentally ill and substance abusers to supervised housing and treatment that would cost society a fraction as much."
  • Believes in the "constitutional separation of church and state."
  • Supports the Europe value added tax (VAT).
  • He is "pro-union."

5) Farid Khavari (NPA).
  • He is an "Economist (PhD) and also an accomplished author."
  • We "need to eliminate stupid little details that prevent jobs from being created" (i.e. waiting for certification of a product).
  • Use the Bank of the State of Florida (which he would create) to offer 2% interest loans to jobs that focus on stimulating the "demand side."
  • (I am assuming based on inference) Use the Bank of the State of Florida to offer 2% interest loans for home mortgages.
  • To lower property taxes and eventually eliminate them altogether.
  • Create "Homogeneous multi-specialty clinics" to decrease the costs of health care.
  • Have "affordable universal insurance coverage for all Floridians including health care, natural disaster, car, home and life insurance."
  • 6% interest credit card maximum.
  • Lower the "interest rate to 2% on student loans, and ultimately [make] them free."
  • Support the solar industry to cut the cost of energy and to create jobs in Florida.
  • Create a "zero-cost economy."

6) C.C. Reed (NPA).
  • Supporter of President Obama.
  • "Knowledge is our power and unity is our strength."
  • A "child of God."
  • "The longest running candidate for Governor."

7) Daniel Imperato (NPA).
  • A "global businessman."
  • A trustee of the African Center Foundation, a United Nations NGO.
  • Create a Social Security charity fund.
  • Require "an approval fee on all FDA approved drugs to be contributed by the drug companies to the US healthcare system."
  • Supports a US online education system.
  • Supports "joint manufacturing programs, expansion of labor unions and organized labor into Latin America."
  • "America must setup a payback system for the US taxpayers and the money that they have spent in Iraq using revenues from oil sales."

The Hepburn Railway Act (1906)

"Hepburn Rate Bill"

Overview - PBS

More Overview

Even More Overview

"Sweeping Rate Rise Since Hepburn Act" - NY Times

History of the Elkins Act (1903)

"State Regulators and Pragmatic Federalism"

"With Iron Interlaced"

"Antitrust and Regulation"


"Discontent and Reform"

"Cassatt on Rate Question" - NY Times